(Bacterial Sore Throat)
Strep throat – Definition
Strep throat is a bacterial throat infection.
Strep throat – Causes
Strep throat is caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes. It is spread by airborne droplets, most often from:
- Coughing and sneezing of people who have strep throat
- Touching a contaminated surface and then touching your eyes, nose, or mouth
Strep throat – Risk Factors
A risk factor is something that increases your chance of getting a disease or condition.
Risk factors for strep throat include:
- Age: school-aged children
- Family member or friend who has strep throat
Strep throat – Symptoms
Symptoms of strep throat include:
- Red, sore throat with white patches
- Painful, difficult swallowing
- Swollen, sore glands in the neck
- Nausea and possibly vomiting
- Decreased appetite
- Muscle aches, especially in the neck, and abdominal pains, especially in younger children
Strep throat – Diagnosis
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Tests to detect strep throat may be used and include:
- Throat culture — Sample of throat secretions is cultured in the laboratory. It takes a few days to gets results.
- Rapid antigen strep screen — The results are available in minutes. The test is based on detection of antigens; however, a negative test does not exclude the diagnosis of strep throat.
- Rapid DNA test — Using DNA technology to detect strep throat, this test is as accurate as throat culture. The results are usually available in one day.
While only a, rapid DNA test or throat culture can confidently distinguish strep throats from those caused by virus infection, doctors will make a diagnosis and decide about treatment primarily by careful evaluation of symptoms and physical findings.
Strep throat – Treatment
Almost all sore throats — including strep — will get better on their own in 7-10 days. Strep throat improves more rapidly with antibiotics than without. (Antibiotics do not affect the healing of sore throats due to virus infection.) Given as a pill or a shot, types of antibiotics include penicillin, amoxicillin, erythromycin, azithromycin, or cephalosporin antibiotics. Symptoms begin to disappear after only a few doses, but it is crucial that you finish the entire prescription.
Serious complications of undertreated strep throat include:
- Kidney damage ( glomerulonephritis)
- Scarlet fever
- Rheumatic fever
- Tonsillitis or peritonsillar abscess
- Ear or sinus infection
Antibiotics are typically given to prevent the complication of rheumatic fever from occurring after strep throat infection. In many communities, neither azithromycin nor erythromycin are reliably effective in treating strep throat or preventing rheumatic fever due to resistance of the bacteria.
Over-the-Counter Pain Medications
Acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) can help relieve sore throat and muscle aches and pains.
Note : Aspirin is not recommended for children or teens with a current or recent viral infection. This is because of the risk of Reye’s syndrome. Ask your doctor which other medicines are safe for your child.
If your are diagnosed with strep throat, follow your doctor’s instructions.
Strep throat – Prevention
To reduce your chances of getting strep throat:
- Wash your hands carefully.
- Don’t share beverages or food.