Epilepsy – Seizure Disorder

Written by Medicine and Health. Posted in Brain & nerves, Disease, Condition & Injury, Head & neck conditions

Epilepsy – Definition

A seizure happens when there are certain types of abnormal electrical activity in the brain. During a seizure, you may:

  • Lose consciousness
  • Stare into space
  • Have convulsions (abnormal jerking of the muscles)
  • Experience abnormalities of sensation or emotion

If you have two or more seizures that are not due to an illness or other trigger, then it is considered a seizure disorder. This condition is also known as epilepsy. Seizure disorders may be classified by the part of the brain they affect and the kinds of symptoms they cause. One way to categorize into two important groups is:

  • Generalized seizure disorder — onset is throughout the brain, not from a single focal location
  • Partial seizure disorder (focal seizure) — begins within certain areas of the brain

Dementia

Written by Medicine and Health. Posted in Brain & nerves, Disease, Condition & Injury, Head & neck conditions

Dementia – Definition

Dementia is a general loss of mental abilities. It can include a loss of ability to think, reason, learn, and understand. To be considered dementia, these mental losses must be severe enough to interfere with day to day activities. Dementia must also have:

  • Memory problems
  • Mental loss that is severe enough to cause problems with one or more of the following:
    • Language
    • Visuospatial function
    • Executive function (foresight, planning, anticipation, insight)
    • Praxis (learned motor skills)

Some Areas of the Brain Affected by Dementia

Delirium

Written by Medicine and Health. Posted in Brain & nerves, Disease, Condition & Injury, Head & neck conditions

Delirium – Definition

Delirium is a clinical state characterized by an acute change in a person’s mental status. It usually comes on quickly, over hours or days. It is marked by extreme, fluctuating changes, including:

  • Changes in perception and sensation
  • Difficulties with ability to:
    • Focus
    • Sustain and shift attention
    • Think and reason rationally
    • Function normally
    • Communicate clearly

Delirium – Causes

Hundreds of underlying causes can result in delirium. Some of the most common causes include:

  • Serious medical condition (eg, brain tumor, cancer, kidney failure, heart attack, stroke, low or high blood sugar levels)
  • Serious illness (eg, meningitis)
  • Injury (eg, severe head injury, broken bone)
  • Surgery
  • Infection (eg, pneumonia, urinary tract infections)
  • Alcohol or drug abuse
  • Withdrawal from alcohol or drug abuse
  • Toxic effects of medicines
  • Toxins
  • Sleep deprivation
  • Severe constipation

Just one of many potential causes of delirium.